All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. This review revealed 2 predominant alpha female representations in the literature—one more masculine versus one more feminine—and 21 alpha female variables. The measure of masculine traits was identified as the only predictor of alpha female status as per the multiple regression model. Interestingly, both alpha and non-alpha women scored the same for the measure of feminine traits. Further, both groups scored higher for feminine traits than masculine traits. The results also revealed that neither social dominance nor sexual dominance were predictors of alpha female status which challenge academic and popularized representations of this identity. Popularized narratives and discourse within this context rely on analogies between human and primate behavior [ 1 — 4 ], [ 16 ], [ 32 — 36 ]. In the West, alpha women have been described both within the context of masculinity and femininity. This approach however, does not allow insight into our understanding of whether women who are classified as alpha, acknowledge or even occupy the alpha female identity.
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